[21] In 1944, Humphrey was one of the key players in the merger of the Democratic and Farmer-Labor parties of Minnesota to form the Minnesota Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party (DFL). Humphrey did win some primaries, including those in Ohio,[234] Indiana and Pennsylvania, but was defeated by McGovern in several others, including the crucial California primary. "[147], On November 4, 1967, Humphrey cited Malaysia as an example of what Vietnam could resemble post a Viet Cong defeat while in Jakarta, Indonesia. In the selection of candidates for membership, certain chapters had not escaped challenges of racial stereotyping and allegations of colorism . In 1974, along with Rep. Augustus Hawkins of California, Humphrey authored the Humphrey-Hawkins Full Employment Act, the first attempt at full employment legislation. At the 1964 Democratic National Convention, Johnson kept the three likely vice-presidential candidates, Connecticut Senator Thomas Dodd, fellow Minnesota Senator Eugene McCarthy, and Humphrey,[110] as well as the rest of the nation, in suspense before announcing his choice of Humphrey with much fanfare, praising his qualifications at considerable length before announcing his name.[111]. [230], On November 4, 1970, shortly after being elected to the Senate, Humphrey stated his intention to take on the role of a "harmonizer" within the Democratic Party to minimize the possibility of potential presidential candidates within the party lambasting each other prior to deciding to run in the then-upcoming election, dismissing that he was an active candidate at that time. Hubert Humphrey: Phi Delta Chi & Alpha Phi Alpha** James Schoolcraft Sherman: Sigma Phi: John Nance Garner: Pi Kappa Alpha: Mike Pence: Phi Gamma Delta: Nelson Rockefeller: Psi Upsilon: Schuyler Colfax: Beta Theta Pi** Theodore Roosevelt: Delta Kappa Epsilon & Alpha Delta Phi Thomas Riley Marshall: Phi Gamma Delta In radio broadcasts, he carefully redefined the issue from Catholic versus Protestant to tolerance versus intolerance. [150], In February 1965, President Johnson appointed Humphrey to the chairmanship of the President's Council on Equal Opportunity. [211] On December 27, Humphrey said the Nixon administration was responsible for an escalation of the Southeast Asia war and requested complete cessation of North Vietnam bombing while responding to antiwar protestors in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. [156], December 1965 saw the beginning of Humphrey's tour of eastern countries, saying he hoped to have "cordial and frank discussions" ahead of the trip beginning when asked about the content of the talks. [136], As Vice President, Humphrey was criticized for his complete and vocal loyalty to Johnson and the policies of the Johnson Administration, even as many of his liberal admirers opposed the president's policies with increasing fervor regarding the Vietnam War. [89], Humphrey ran for the Democratic presidential nomination twice before his election to the Vice Presidency in 1964. Humphrey served three terms in the Senate from 1949 to 1964, and was the Senate Majority Whip for the last four years of his tenure. He was seized by American bodyguards who turned him in to Italian officers. [76] Humphrey's consistently cheerful and upbeat demeanor, and his forceful advocacy of liberal causes, led him to be nicknamed "The Happy Warrior" by many of his Senate colleagues and political journalists. "[159] On April 2, 1967, Vice President Humphrey met with Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Harold Wilson. [179] After the assassination of Kennedy, Humphrey suspended his campaign for two weeks.[180]. [121] In Tampa, Florida on October 18, a week after the resignation of Walter Jenkins amid a scandal, Humphrey said he was unaware of any potential security leaks relating to the case. [153] During the first meeting of the group on March 3, Humphrey stated the budget was US$289,000 and pledged to ensure vigorous work by the small staff. View on Immigration", "Humphrey Hits Barry's 'No' on 'Great Issues, "Electoral Votes for President and Vice President 1964 ELECTION FOR THE FORTY-FIFTH TERM, 1965–1969", "The American Presidency Project Election of 1964", "Hubert's Sure Victory Is All Wrapped Up", "Humphrey Rests, Friends Fish in Virgin Isles", "Hubert To Quit Senate Job in Mid-December", "Inauguration of the President and Vice President, 1/20/1965", "Frank Sinatra: The Popular Front and an American Icon", "Editors Hear Humphrey's Glowing Forecast For U.S.", "Don't Expect Gratitude for Aid: Humphrey", "Humphrey Answers Hecklers on Viet Nam War Issue", "Marshall Plan in U.S. In 1948, I spoke before your annual convention at Atlantic City. [139][140] He also struck up a friendship with Frank Sinatra, who supported his campaign for president in 1968 before his conversion to the Republican party in the early 1970s,[141] and was perhaps most on notice in the fall of 1977 when Sinatra was the star attraction and host of a tribute to a then-ailing Humphrey. In the general election, he nearly matched Nixon's tally in the popular vote but lost the electoral vote by a wide margin. Rubin is assisting Arnold Offner, Cornelia F. Hugel Professor of History, with his book-length study entitled Hubert H. Humphrey and the Tragedy of American Liberalism. Humphrey's body lay in state in the rotundas of the U.S. Capitol[245] and the Minnesota State Capitol before being interred at Lakewood Cemetery in Minneapolis. In 1943, he became a professor of political science at Macalester College and ran a failed campaign for mayor of Minneapolis. The delegates knew it. [10] Both father and son were innovative in finding ways to attract customers: "to supplement their business, the Humphreys had become manufacturers ... of patent medicines for both hogs and humans. "[193] On October 10, Humphrey stated his support for Nixon's policies in Vietnam and that he believed "the worst thing that we can do is to try to undermine the efforts of the President. "Eugene's Stand Saddens HHH", The Daily Collegian, University Park, PA, 69 (16), p. 4, October 10, 1968, archived from the original on March 21, 2012, Deputy President pro tempore of the United States Senate, Kennedy's attractive brothers, sisters, and wife Jacqueline, attack on a US military installation at Pleiku, Hubert Humphrey presidential campaign, 1968, United States congressional delegations from Minnesota, Minneapolis-Saint Paul International Airport, Hubert H. Humphrey School of Public Affairs, Los Angeles County Department of Health Services, List of United States Congress members who died in office (1950–99), "Hubert H. Humphrey: The Art of the Possible", "Partial Genealogy of the Humphreys (of Minnesota)", "The Humphrey Minnesota knows took shape in S.D. It was Humphrey, not Senator [Everett] Dirksen, who played the crucial part in the complex parliamentary games that were needed to pass the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Seeks to Divide, Conquer", "A.D.A. [182] Humphrey selected as his running mate Senator Ed Muskie of Maine. [152] During his tenure, he appointed Wiley A. Branton as executive director. [174], Many people saw Humphrey as Johnson's stand-in; he won major backing from the nation's labor unions and other Democratic groups troubled by young antiwar protesters and the social unrest around the nation. McWilliams, Carey. The Hubert H. Humphrey Job Corps Center in St. Paul, Minnesota. (1882–1949). He was honored by the United States Postal Service with a 52¢ Great Americans series (1980–2000) postage stamp. Loyal to the Johnson administration's policies on the Vietnam War, he received opposition from many within his own party and avoided the primaries to focus on winning the delegates of non-primary states at the Democratic Convention. He was a lead author of its text, alongside Republican Senate Republican Minority Leader Everett Dirksen of Illinois. After the defeat, he returned to the Senate and served from 1971 until his death in 1978. ", "Hubert Horatio Humphrey Vice President, 1965–1969 compiled by LBJ Library staff", "Cold War Files: All Units: People: Hubert H. Humphrey", Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, "Muriel Humphrey Brown – Hubert Humphrey's Widow", "American President A Reference Resource", "HUMPHREY, Hubert Horatio Jr., (1911–1978)", "Manuscript Collections Hubert H. Humphrey PapersAn Inventory of His Mayor's Political Files", "The Road to Civil Rights President Harry S. Truman and Civil Rights", "In 1948, Democrats Weathered Civil Rights Divide", "Hubert Humphrey 1948 Civil Rights Speech", "HUBERT H. HUMPHREY'S 1948 SPEECH ON CIVIL RIGHTS", "the Dixiecrat Revolt and the End of the Solid South, 1932–1968", "PRIMARY ELECTION RETURNS ON ELECTION HELD September 14, 1948", "GENERAL ELECTION RETURN ON ELECTION ON ELECTION HELD November 2, 1948", "FOUNDING SENATORS Hubert Horatio Humphrey Jr", "A Worldwide Factual Intelligence Report the Future of Hong Kong Revolutionary Warfare-The Communist Tool Will Conservatives Win in '68? "Most Democrats and Republicans in the Senate voted for an $11.5 billion tax cut for American citizens and American business," he cried, "but not Senator Goldwater. During the visit, Humphrey was imposed tight security as a result of the JFK assassination a year and a half prior and the mother of Lee Harvey Oswald was placed under surveillance by Police Chief Cato Hightower. Kappa Alpha Psi Brother from University of Maryland Creates Video Paying Homage to His School and Nigerian Heritage. Some commentators argued that Kennedy's victory margin had come almost entirely from areas with large Roman Catholic populations,[96] and that Protestants had supported Humphrey. [125] Only five Southern states and Goldwater's home state of Arizona supported the Republican ticket. Humphrey was elected to the United States Senate in 1948 on the DFL ticket, defeating James M. Shields in the DFL primary with 89% of the vote,[62] and unseating incumbent Republican Joseph H. Ball in the general election with 60% of the vote. [199] Solberg wrote of President Nixon's April 1970 Cambodian Campaign as having done away with Humphrey's hopes that the war be taken out of political context. Humphrey had not planned to return to political life, but an unexpected opportunity changed his mind. In response to this advice, President Johnson punished Humphrey by treating him coldly and restricting him from his inner circle for a number of months, until Humphrey decided to "get back on the team" and fully support the war effort. [85] In February 1959, Humphrey said American newspapers should have ignored Khrushchev's comments calling him a purveyor of fairy tales. "[151] In a private meeting with Joseph Califano on September 18, 1965, President Johnson stated his intent to remove Humphrey from the post of "point man" on civil rights within the administration, believing the vice president was tasked with enough work. [58] The Dixiecrats' goal was to take Southern states away from Truman and thus cause his defeat. He was a brother of Phi Delta Chi (Theta Chapter), a professional pharmaceutical fraternity and an honorary brother of Alpha Phi Alpha, an African-American fraternity. [52] Although many scholars[who?] [155], In an August 1967 speech at a county officials national convention in Detroit, Michigan, Humphrey called for the establishment of a Marshall Plan that would curb poverty in the United States as well as address racial violence, and advocated for the creation of civil peace councils that would counter rioting. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., Civil Rights Leader Dick Gregory, Civic Activist Paul Robeson, Civil Rights Leader, Actor, Singer Lester Granger, former Executive Director of the National Urban League Whitney M. Young Jr., former Executive Director of the National Urban League Charles Hamilton, Houston former NAACP Legal Counsel Jow Duff, NAACP Attorney Hugh B. [213] On May 20, Humphrey said Nixon's proposal to limit schoolchildren busing was "insufficient in the amount of aid needed for our children, deceptive to the American people, and insensitive to the laws and the Constitution of this nation", in a reversal of his prior stance, while in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. "[219] Three days after Cox's dismissal, during a speech to the AFL-CIO convention on October 23, Humphrey declined to state his position on whether Nixon should be impeached, citing that his congressional position would likely cause him to have to play a role in determining Nixon's fate. But underneath the beautiful exterior, there was an element of ruthlessness and toughness that I had trouble either accepting or forgetting. [30] His first two attempts were to join the Navy, first as a commissioned officer and then as an enlisted man. "[138], While he was Vice President, Hubert Humphrey was the subject of a satirical song by songwriter/musician Tom Lehrer entitled "Whatever Became of Hubert?" [227] In October, after Sara Jane Moore's assassination attempt on Ford, Humphrey joined former presidential candidates Barry Goldwater, Edmund Muskie, and George McGovern in urging Ford and other presidential candidates to restrain their campaigning the following year to prevent future attempts on their lives. Dallek wrote the shift in role was in line with the change in policy the Johnson administration underwent in response to "the changing political mood in the country on aid to African Americans. [241] In July 1977, after the Senate began debating approval for funding of the neutron bomb, Humphrey stated that the White House had granted the impact statement on arms control be released.[242]. [248], In 1978, Humphrey received the U.S. Johnson told Humphrey he would shorten his role within the administration's civil rights policies and pass a portion to Katzenbach, Califano writing that Humphrey agreed to go along with the plan reluctantly. According to one biographer "Humphrey thought his chances were good in West Virginia, one of the few states that had backed him in his losing race for vice-president four years earlier ... West Virginia was more rural than urban, [which] seemed to invite Humphrey's folksy stump style. In 1965, Humphrey was made an Honorary Life Member of Alpha Phi Alpha, the first intercollegiate Greek-letter fraternity established for African American males. So as the 1964 presidential campaign began, Humphrey made clear his interest in becoming Lyndon Johnson's running mate. [204] On May 21, Humphrey said ending hunger and malnutrition in the U.S. was "a moral obligation" during a speech to International Food Service Manufacturers Association members at the Conrad Hilton Hotel. Humphrey spent his last weeks calling old political acquaintances. [188] Later that month, Humphrey returned to Washington after visiting Europe, a week after McCarthy declared he would not seek reelection, Humphrey declining to comment amid speculation he intended to return to the Senate. He helped found the Minnesota Democratic–Farmer–Labor Party (DFL) in 1944; the next year he was elected mayor of Minneapolis, serving until 1948 and co-founding the liberal anti-communist group Americans for Democratic Action in 1947. [48], At the 1948 Democratic National Convention, the party platform reflected the division by containing only platitudes supporting civil rights. Members of Alpha Phi Alpha include Jamaican Prime Minister and Rhodes Scholar Norman Manley, Nobel Prize winner Martin Luther King, Jr., U.S. Vice President Hubert Humphrey, Olympian Jesse Owens, Justice Thurgood Marshall, United Nations Ambassador Andrew Young, and Atlanta Mayor Maynard Jackson. Famous Alphas CIVIC LEADERS W.E.B. [115] At a Santa Fe September 13 rally, Humphrey said the Goldwater-led Republican Party was seeking "to divide America so that they may conquer" and that Goldwater would pinch individuals in his reduction of government. [160] White House Press Secretary George Christian said five days later that he had received reports from Vice President Humphrey indicating his tour of the European countries was "very constructive" and said President Johnson was interested in the report as well. They proposed adding a "minority plank" to the party platform that would commit the Democratic Party to more aggressive opposition to racial segregation. He attended American University where he was a member of the Alpha Sigma Phi, Beta Chi chapter, and is a graduate University of Minnesota Law School. We seek an America able to do this in the higher knowledge that our goals and ideals are worthy of conciliation and personal sacrifice. [31] Despite his attempts to join the military, one biographer would note that "all through his political life, Humphrey was dogged by the charge that he was a draft dodger" during the war. Offner, Arnold, "Hubert Humphrey: The Conscience of the Country," New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2018. [59] They reasoned that after such a defeat, the national Democratic Party would never again aggressively pursue a pro-civil rights agenda. In between these two bids, Humphrey was part of the free-for-all for the vice-presidential nomination at the 1956 Democratic National Convention, where he received 134 votes on the first ballot and 74 on the second. [15] Hubert Sr. tried to convince his son not to leave by offering him a full partnership in the store, but Hubert Jr. refused and told his father "how depressed I was, almost physically ill from the work, the dust storms, the conflict between my desire to do something and be somebody and my loyalty to him ... he replied 'Hubert, if you aren't happy, then you ought to do something about it'. [19], In 1943, Humphrey made his first run for elective office, for Mayor of Minneapolis. [246], Humphrey's wife Muriel was appointed by Minnesota governor Rudy Perpich to serve in the U.S. Senate until a special election to fill the term was held; she did not seek election to finish her husband's term in office. His father was a licensed pharmacist and merchant who served as mayor and a town council member; he also served briefly in the South Dakota state legislature and was a South Dakota delegate to the 1944 and 1948 Democratic National Conventions. Senator John Heinz Award for Greatest Public Service by an Elected or Appointed Official, an award given out annually by Jefferson Awards . [158], Humphrey began a European tour in late-March 1967 to mend frazzled relations and indicated that he was "ready to explain and ready to listen. 1965: Honorary Life Member of Alpha Phi Alpha, a historically African American fraternity. Appearance", "Humphrey won't run for President in 1976", "Humphrey's resisting the call of the presidential primaries", "CARTER ASKS LEADERS OF CONGRESS TO HELP IN A REORGANIZATION", "DEMOCRATS CRITICIZE CARTER ON PRIORITIES", "SENATE VOTES FUNDS FOR NEUTRON BOMBS, HEEDING CARTER PLEA", http://articles.latimes.com/1989-09-03/news/vw-2284_1_single-source, "Hubert Humphrey Dies – Events of 1978 – Year in Review", A Childhood Friendship Turns to Love, and Muriel Humphrey Plans to Be Married, "TWIN CITIES CAMPUS MAPS Hubert H. Humphrey School of Public Affairs", "Pooch Hall Knows 'A Dog's Purpose', Doug McKeon Joins LBJ", Hubert: The Triumph And Tragedy Of The Humphrey I Knew, The Years of Lyndon Johnson: Master of the Senate, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, Complete text and audio of Humphrey's 1948 speech at the Democratic National Convention – from AmericanRhetoric.com, Complete text and audio of Humphrey's 1964 speech at the Democratic National Convention – from AmericanRhetoric.com, Oral History Interviews with Hubert H. Humphrey, from the Lyndon Baines Johnson Library. [148] [248] In 1978, Humphrey received the U.S. Whitney. [49] The incumbent president, Harry S. Truman, had shelved most of his 1946 Commission on Civil Rights's recommendations to avoid angering Southern Democrats. [69] During the McCarthyist period (1950–54), Humphrey was accused of being "soft on communism" despite having been one of the founders of the anticommunist liberal organization Americans for Democratic Action, having been a staunch supporter of the Truman Administration's efforts to combat the growth of the Soviet Union, and having fought Communist political activities in Minnesota and elsewhere. [149] On December 7, Vice President Humphrey said in an interview that the Viet Cong could potentially be the factor in creating a political compromise with the government of Saigon. Vick's used mineral oil, which is not absorbent, and we used a vegetable-oil base, which was. [2] He was the son of Ragnild Kristine Sannes (1883–1973), a Norwegian immigrant,[3] and Hubert Horatio Humphrey Sr. He was also a brother of Tau Delta Phi. [123] In an October 26 speech in Chicago, Humphrey called Goldwater "neither a Republican nor a Democrat" and "a radical". "[12] Humphrey later wrote, "we made 'Humphrey's Sniffles', a substitute for Vick's Nose Drops. [209] On October 26, Humphrey stated his support for removing barriers to voting registration and authorizing students to establish voting residences in their college communities, rebuking the refusal of United States Attorney General John N. Mitchell the previous month to take a role in shaping voter registration laws as applicable to new voters. [5] In the late 1920s, a severe economic downturn hit Doland; both banks in the town closed and Humphrey's father struggled to keep his store open. have suggested that labor unions were leading figures in this coalition, no significant labor leaders attended the convention, except for the heads of the Congress of Industrial Organizations Political Action Committee (CIOPAC), Jack Kroll and A.F. [162] In Brussels, Belgium on April 9, demonstrators led by communists threw rotten eggs and fruits at Vice President Humphrey's car, also hitting several of his bodyguards. A quizzical smile spread across Humphrey's face, then turned to a laugh of triumph. [74] With another former pharmacist, Representative Carl Durham, Humphrey cosponsored the Durham-Humphrey Amendment, which amended the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, defining two specific categories for medications, legend (prescription) and over-the-counter (OTC). Hubert Humphrey, 38th vice president of the United States (1965–69) in the Democratic administration of President Lyndon B. Johnson and the Democratic presidential candidate in 1968. For example, the Humphrey forces argued that the winner-take-all rule for the California primary violated procedural reforms intended to produce a better reflection of the popular vote, the reason that the Illinois delegation was bounced. [102] Unproven accusations claimed that the Kennedys had bought the West Virginia primary by bribing county sheriffs and other local officials to give Kennedy the vote. [215], In January 1973, Humphrey said the Nixon administration was plotting to eliminate a school milk program in the upcoming fiscal year budget during a telephone interview. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., Civil Rights Leader. And no one could deny that Hubert Humphrey would be a formidable political antagonist in the weeks ahead. Hubert Horatio Humphrey, Jr. (May 27, 1911 – January 13, 1978) was an American politician who served as the 38th Vice President of the United States under President Lyndon B. Jo Alpha Phi Alpha will profoundly feel the loss of our distinguished Brother, Senator HUBERT HORATIO HUMPHREY of Minnesota. Humphrey stated a preventative health care program would be the only way for the Carter administration to not have to fund soaring health costs. Young Democrats of America High School Caucus, Presidential and Vice-Presidential ambitions (1952–1964), Deputy President pro tempore of the Senate (1976–1978), Buildings and institutions named for Humphrey, {{cite web| title =The Man Who Quit Kicking the Wall| work =, Hubert Humphrey (1911-1978)/biography (disambiguation), US Congressional Delegations from Minnesota, Minneapolis-Saint Paul International Airport, Hubert H. Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs, Fear and Loathing on the Campaign Trail '72, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=geolarson2&id=I272211, http://books.google.com/books?id=wzGabQcvDvcC&pg=PA206&lpg=PA206&dq=humphrey+kennedy+catholic&source=web&ots=vTJ4Cbv1rr&sig=RRIlG-prYSwmP6IUsG3cjck4r94#PPA209,M1, Municipal Building Commission: City Hall and Courthouse timeline, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, Complete text and audio of Humphrey's 1948 speech at the Democratic National Convention - from AmericanRhetoric.com, Complete text and audio of Humphrey's 1964 speech at the Democratic National Convention - from AmericanRhetoric.com, Transcript, Hubert H. Humphrey Oral History Interview. [53], Despite Truman's aides' aggressive pressure to avoid forcing the issue on the Convention floor, Humphrey spoke for the minority plank. The democratic process has worked its will."[184]. [20] Also strongly backing the minority plank were Democratic urban bosses like Ed Flynn of the Bronx, who promised the votes of northeastern delegates to Humphrey's platform, Jacob Arvey of Chicago, and David Lawrence of Pittsburgh. "[196], On January 4, 1970, Humphrey said the United States should cease tests of nuclear weapons during the continued conversations for potential strategic arms limitations between the United States and the Soviet Union while speaking to the National Retail Furniture association at the Palmer House. His running mate for reelection in 1968 Washington, D.C Nixon 's dismissal of Archibald Cox, Humphrey met Johnson... Into the Alpha Phi Alpha, a historically African American fraternity added benzocaine, a historically African American fraternity of! Meet the religion issue head-on stereotyping and allegations of colorism President pro tempore the... 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