Osmium is a much better catalyst for the reaction but is very expensive. The compressed gas is then pumped into the converter, where it flows over beds of iron catalysts kept around at least 450°C (840°F). The iron-free formulation prevents formation of unwanted iron carbides that reduce the catalyst strength of conventional iron-based HTS catalysts. Ammonia synthesis is the process by which ammonia is formed from nitrogen and hydrogen over a catalyst (usually iron). Ammonia decomposition Iron catalyst Cobalt catalyst 1 Introduction Catalysts for ammonia synthesis have been the study sub-ject for over 100 years now. This is in accordance to Le Chatlier’s principle, which states that any change in concentration , temperature, volume, or partial pressure to a system in equilibrium will cause the equilibrium to shift in order to counteract the imposed change. Until 1990, when Kellog Advanced Ammonia Plant introduced carbon-supported ruthenium catalyst, iron catalyst was the only catalyst used in industrial ammonia synthesis [1, 2]. Iron is used as a catalyst to manufacture ammonia using the Haber process. This, combined with the use of the hot iron catalyst, means that a good yield of ammonia is produced constantly. hydrogen by feeding the reactants over iron catalysts at a high pressure and temperature, requiring bulky, well-insulated reactors to house the process. Johnson Matthey supplies both un-reduced and pre-reduced ammonia synthesis catalysts, based on more than 80 years' operating experience with ICI, along with more than 100 years' operating experience with BASF and extensive experience of all other operating technologies. (Source: Haldor Topsoe, 2016). However, various The reaction listed above is reversible, so these catalysts push the reaction towards the production of ammonia. Nanoscale iron catalysts, designed for industrial chemical applications, have been validated in commercial ammonia-production reactors in China. • Ammonia synthesis catalyst: KM 111 KM 111, a magnetite-based catalyst, developed for lower beds of the ammonia converter possesses an This process produces an ammonia, NH 3 (g), yield of approximately 10-20%. oxide and zinc aluminum spinel. Recently, scientists have reported ruthenium -- a transition metal -- as an efficient "catalyst" for ammonia synthesis, as it operates under milder conditions than traditional iron-based catalysts. The Haber process synthesizes approximately 150 million tons of ammonia each year and has allowed the earth to sustain a population nearly five times larger than before the procedure’s invention. The speed of a chemical reaction may increase or decrease by the addition of a catalyst. 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